Acne treatment strategies are contingent upon the severity of the condition, often necessitating several months of intervention for noticeable improvement. Mild cases, characterized by isolated blackheads, whiteheads, and sporadic lesions, can typically be managed with over-the-counter gels or creams containing benzoyl peroxide, obtainable from pharmacists. Conversely, moderate to severe acne warrants consultation with a general practitioner (GP) for tailored prescription interventions. Pharmacological options include topical retinoids, topical antibiotics, azelaic acid, antibiotic tablets, and hormonal therapies, such as the combined oral contraceptive pill. In cases refractory to initial treatments, referral to a dermatologist may be warranted,

particularly when severe symptoms or scarring are present. Treatment timelines can vary, with most modalities requiring two to three months for noticeable efficacy. Adverse effects are possible with pharmacological interventions, ranging from mild skin irritation to systemic effects, necessitating careful monitoring by healthcare providers. Non-pharmaceutical interventions, such as photodynamic therapy or comedone extraction, may also be considered, albeit with variable efficacy and limited routine recommendation.

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