Acne, a dermatological condition, arises from the obstruction of hair follicles, microscopic apertures in the skin. Sebaceous glands, located proximate to the skin’s surface, are associated with these follicles, secreting sebum, an oily substance, to moisturize both hair and skin. Excessive production of sebum in acne leads to its amalgamation with dead skin cells, forming a plug within the follicle. This plug may manifest externally as a whitehead or remain open, resulting in a blackhead.

Subsequent contamination by ordinarily benign skin bacteria can induce inflammation, presenting as papules, pustules, nodules, or cysts. Teenage acne, often triggered by heightened testosterone levels during puberty, underscores the gland’s sensitivity to hormonal fluctuations.

Genetic predisposition also plays a role, with familial patterns observed in the severity and onset of acne. Women, experiencing hormonal fluctuations during menstruation, pregnancy, or conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome, are more prone to adult acne. Other potential triggers encompass cosmetic products, medications like steroids or lithium, smoking, and diets high in glycaemic index. Despite widespread prevalence, misconceptions abound regarding acne’s etiology and treatment. Practices like excessive cleansing or squeezing exacerbate symptoms and may lead to scarring, while unsubstantiated beliefs regarding sexual activity or sun exposure lack empirical support.

Additionally, using toothpaste as a remedy can irritate the skin, warranting caution and reliance on more effective, medically endorsed treatments.

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